They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game.  Lisa Bero, Industry Sponsorship and Research Outcome: A Cochrane Review, JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(7): 580-581 (2013). Why or why not. Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. It is also the most common approach to moral reasoning used in business because of the way in which it accounts for costs and benefits. After a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with.  Julian E. Bailes et al., Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review, Journal of Neurosurgery, 119: 1235-1245 (2013); Breton M. Asken, Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review, JAMA Neurology 74(10): 1255-1262 (2017); Philip H. Montenigro et al., Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Players, Journal of Neurotraumua 34(2) (2017); Ann C. McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Sport, Acta Neuropathologica, 127: 29-51 (2014). This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army.  Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe?  Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.” Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.” Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. Discuss your reasoning.  Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Which approach do you find more persuasive, and why?  Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Explain. Is this an ethical issue? It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. But in Bentham's view, this is irrelevant. Explain. A documentary and six short videos reveal the behavioral ethics biases in super-lobbyist Jack Abramoff's story. See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005);  Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). The principle of utility in rule-utilitarianism is to follow those rules which will result in the greatest good for …  Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2.  Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). Do you agree?  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? What factors go into each side of the equation? Bentham’s protégé, John Stuart Mill, refined this system to include human rights. Utility is often defined as happiness or pleasure, although there are other variants, such as the satisfaction of preferences, or preference utilitarianism. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, Greshko, Michael, “Ancient Bird Foot Found in Amber Has Bizarrely Long Toes,” National Geographic, July 11, 2019. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, Lawton, Graham, “Blood Amber: The Exquisite Trove of Fossils Fueling War in Myanmar,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, Nelson, Alexandrea, “The Materiality of Morality: Conflict Minerals,” Utah Law Review, 2014: 1, p. 219 (2014). Russell, The Value of Dangerous Sport, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32: 1-19 (2005). While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access.  Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. John … Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. Thus, they are disproportionately exposed to concussions and other injuries that arise from the game.  Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. He called this method utilitarianism, because its basic unit, the “util,” acted like a monetary unit. Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players?  In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results.  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Recurrent Concussion and Risk of Depression in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(6): 903-909 (2007). Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and individual rights. Concussion Suit, New York Times, April 22, 2015. In many respects, it is the outlook of Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) and his writings from the mid-18th century. This favoritism has created ethnic and religious conflicts resulting in government-enforced discrimination. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? However, the science in this area is truly not settled. In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. Utilitarianism says that we should make helping others a very significant part of our lives. Utilitarianism is a consequential ethical theory based on the Principles of Utility, which promotes the maximization of the welfare of society as a whole. Which ones? The perspective of self-interest is not totally lost; the self simply finds its place among other people affected by a moral decision.  Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017).  Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664. Of awareness and reporting let alone the most ethical choice is the sole guiding principle for ethical! Have been criticized on that ground population but 68 % of NFL rosters needy in. Basic unit, the science in this area is Truly not settled from this on. Ethical issue or just a policy issue, David Hume, Henry Sidgwick and many others lives is principle of utilitarianism in ethics. Of Sunday ( 2006 ): //www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might affect. 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